4月 26, 2016

Hanna Arendt (2012)

『艾希曼這樣的納粹戰犯有個問題,他堅持棄絕所有個人特質,彷彿沒有人可資懲罰或原諒。他一再嚴正聲明,與檢方的主張恰巧相反,他從未主動做過任何事;他也無任何個人意圖,無論是好是壞。他只是遵守個人命令罷了。這是典型的納粹式抗辯,讓我們清楚看見,無名小卒犯下世上至惡,行惡之人沒有動機,也無信念,也非心懷惡意或以惡為志;他們只是拒絕當人。此現象我稱之為「邪惡的平庸」。』

"The trouble with a Nazi criminal like Eichmann was that he insisted on renouncing all personal qualities, as if there was nobody left to be either punished or forgiven. He protested time and again, contrary to the Pro- secution's assertions, that he had never done anything out of his own initiative, that he had no intentions whatsoever, good or bad, that he had only obeyed orders. This typical Nazi plea makes it clear that the greatest evil in the world is the evil committed by nobodies. Evil committed by men without motive, without convictions, without wicked hearts or demonic wills, by human beings who refuse to be persons. And it is this phenomenon that I have called the 'banality of evil.'"

『我筆下並未替艾希曼辯護,但我試圖在他令人驚訝的平庸與他驚人的惡行中找到關連。試圖瞭解並不等於原諒;瞭解真相是我的職責,敢論述這件事的人就要敢擔。自蘇格拉底與柏拉圖以來,我們通常將思考這件事,視為自己與自我的沈默對話。艾希曼拒絕為人,便放棄了身而為人的決定性特質,即思考的能力。結果他再也無法進行道德判斷。這種思考的無能,導致許多平凡人犯下巨大惡行;那是人類前所未見的邪惡。我的確以哲學角度思考這些問題。思考的表現並非知識,而是辨別是非美醜的能力。我希望思考能賦予人們能力,在緊要關頭避免慘劇發生。謝謝。』

"I wrote no defense of Eichmann, but I did try to reconcile the shocking mediocrity of the man with his staggering deeds. Trying to understand is not the same as forgiveness. I see it as my responsibility to understand. It is the responsibility of anyone who dares to put pen to paper on this subject. Since Socratis and Plato we usually call thinking to be engaged in that silent dialogue between me and myself. In refusing to be a person Eichmann utterly surrendered that single most defining human quality, that of being able to think. And consequently he was no longer capable of making moral judgements. This inability to think created the possibility for many ordinary men to commit evil deeds on a gigantic scale, the like of which one had never seen before. It's true I have considered these questions in a philosophical way. The manifestation of the wind of thought is not knowledge, but the ability to tell right from wrong, beautiful from ugly. And I hope that thinking gives people the strength to prevent catastrophes in these rare moments when the chips are down. Thank you."

(相當喜愛《漢娜鄂蘭:真理無懼》片尾的演說,字字珠璣鏗鏘有力。更驚人的是,這部扎實的硬裡子作品出品時,編導Margarethe von Trotta已屆高齡七十!真是令人肅然起敬。下面再轉載一段片尾Hannah Arendt的獨白。)

“Western tradition mistakenly assumes that the greatest evils of mankind arise from selfishness. But in our century, evil has proven to be more radical than was previously thought. And we now know that the truest evil, the radical evil, has nothing to do with selfishness or any such understandable, sinful motives. Instead, it is based on the following phenomenon: making human beings superfluous as human beings. The entire concentration camp system was designed to convince the prisoners they were unnecessary before they were murdered. In the concentration camps men were taught that punishment was not connected to a crime, that exploitation wouldn't profit anyone, and that work produced no results. The camp is a place where every activity and human impulse is senseless. Where, in other words, senselessness is daily produced anew. So to summarize: If it is true that in the final stage of totalitarianism, an absolute evil emerges, absolute as it no longer relates to human motives, then it is equally true that without it, without totalitarianism, we would never have known the truly radical nature of evil.”
-----《漢娜鄂蘭:真理無懼》(Hannah Arendt, 2012)



*片中最後的演講,有網頁整理成完整的逐字稿,由此去

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